The brain, spinal cord and its nerves are covered and protected by three membranes; the dura mater, the arachnoid mater and the pia mater. Arachnoiditis is inflammation of the arachnoid membrane covering the spinal nerves which is mainly characterized by a stinging or burning pain. It usually affects the nerves supplying the lower back and legs.
Back pain is a common cause of absence from work that affects approximately 80% of the American population, at different stages of their life. Back pain is more common in individuals between 35 to 55 years of age.
Lower back pain may be related to the functional impairment of different organs and tissues such as lumbar spine, intervertebral disc, ligament around the spine and disc, spinal cord and nerves, attached muscles, surrounding skin and internal organs.
Brachial Plexus Injury
The brachial plexus is a bundle of nerves that originate at the spinal cord near the neck. These nerves innervate your shoulder, elbow, hand and wrist providing feeling and movement.
Any form of trauma that pushes your head away from your shoulder can stretch or tear these nerves. An injury to the brachial plexus may stop signals to and from the brain and even paralyse the affected arm.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is a common, painful, progressive condition that is caused by compression of the median nerve at the wrist area.
Common symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome include numbness and tingling sensation in all the fingers except little finger.
Cavernous angioma is a vascular disorder characterised by the formation of a cluster of low pressure capillaries that form caverns (cave-like structures) in the brain or spinal cord. Cavernous angioma may be present at birth or can form later during your life. They may be inherent or caused from high pressure in your brain over a long period of time as a result of blockages or inefficient venous drainage.
Central Pain Syndrome
Central pain syndrome is a neurological condition where you experience pain in a particular part of your body, but is not related to any injury to that part. It occurs as a result of damage to your brain, brainstem or spinal cord, brought about by trauma, stroke, seizures, infection or a tumour. The syndrome can show immediately, or after months or even years.
Cervical Spinal Stenosis
Cervical stenosis refers to narrowing of the spinal canal. Cervical stenosis causes neck pain which can radiate to the arms and hands and may also be associated with numbness or weakness of the arms. This may lead to cervical radiculopathy and cervical myelopathy. Cervical radiculopathy occurs due to injury to the cervical spinal nerves, as they exit the spinal canal.
Chorea is neurological disorder characterized by involuntary movements of the body, which may sometimes appear like dance movements. They are irregular and do not follow any pattern and may move from one part of the body to another, usually involving the extremities and face. The involuntary movements may involve facial grimacing, grunting noises, tongue movement and jerking, seen even during rest.
The spine, also called the back bone, is designed to give us stability, smooth movement, as well as providing a corridor of protection for the delicate spinal cord. It is made up of bony segments called vertebrae and fibrous tissue called intervertebral discs. Disc protrusion, also called herniated disc, is a condition caused by a tear in an intervertebral disc allowing the disc contents to bulge out.
Degenerative Disc Disease
Degenerative disc disease (DDD) refers to gradual deterioration of the intervertebral discs between the vertebrae. DDD is a misnomer as it is not actually a disease but a condition that affects the strength, resiliency and structural integrity of the intervertebral discs due to advancing age, trauma, injury, repetitive movement, improper posture, or poor body mechanics. DDD is commonly seen in individuals over 50 years of age.
A tremor is an involuntary muscle movement characterized by shaking of a body part. A slight tremor is normally present in all of us, especially the elderly. Tremors due to a neurological disease that do not resolve require medical intervention. Essential tremor is a neurological condition which causes rhythmic shaking of a part of the body, especially the hands, when performing simple tasks such as writing or drinking from a glass.
Hemifacial spasm is a condition characterized by uncontrolled twitching of muscles on one side of the face caused by compression or irritation of the facial nerve. The affected facial nerve then sends abnormal signals to the muscles it supplies causing them to twitch or contract.
Lumbar Disc Disease
Lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a common cause of low back pain. The vertebrae are cushioned by intervertebral discs which act as shock absorbers, for the spine. Over time, these natural shock absorbers wear out and degenerate due to aging, trauma or injury leading to DDD. Degenerative disc disease is not actually a disease but refers to the changes in the spine that occur as a part of the normal aging process.
Lumbar Spinal Stenosis
Lumbar spinal stenosis refers to the narrowing of the spinal canal and /or the vertebral foramina in the lower back. This causes compression of the spinal cord (lumbar central canal stenosis) and of the spinal nerves (lumbar foraminal stenosis) passing through the vertebral foramina.
Neurofibromatosis is a genetic condition that is characterized by the formation of benign (noncancerous) tumours along nerve tissue.
The noncancerous tumours can develop anywhere along your nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
Peripheral neuropathy is a condition characterized by damaged nerves that cause pain. When this condition affects one nerve, it is called mononeuropathy; when several nerves are affected, it is polyneuropathy; and when 2 or more nerves are involved in different areas, it is termed as multiple mononeuropathy.
Spinal Canal Stenosis
Spinal stenosis is a condition caused from the vertebral column constricting and exerting pressure on the spinal cord or neural foramen (a bony tunnel through which a nerve exits the spinal cord). It usually affects the cervical and lumbar spine. If the spinal canal is narrowed, the disorder is called cervical/lumbar central stenosis. If the foramen is narrowed, it is referred to as cervical/lumbar foraminal stenosis.
Spinal Cord Injury
The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that extends from the base of your brain down to your lower back. These nerves are responsible for the conduction of signals from your brain to the rest of your body to help in its various functions. It is protected by a bony canal formed by vertebrae arranged one above the other as any injury to these nerves can disrupt normal functions.
Spinal Cord Tumours
The spinal cord stretches from the base of your brain, through the backbone, to your lower back. A spinal cord tumour is an uncontrolled growth of tissue that develops within the spinal cord or surrounding bones, and can be cancerous (malignant), spreading to other parts of the body or noncancerous (benign), remaining as a stationary lump.
Degenerative spondylolisthesis usually affects the lumbar (lower back) spine, more frequently at L4-5 levels. Spondylolisthesis arises from degenerative changes in the spinal structure that causes the joints between the vertebrae to slide forward and may lead to spinal stenosis. It is most commonly observed in women aged above 60 years.
Facial pain can occur due to an injury or infection of any facial structure such as the eyes, nose, sinuses, teeth and jaw. It may also be experienced when you have a disorder called trigeminal neuralgia (TN), which affects the trigeminal nerve that carries facial sensations such as pain, pressure and temperature to the brain.
Whiplash is a soft tissue injury to the neck, usually caused by sudden forceful jerk commonly occurring as a result of an automobile accident, sports injuries, or an accidental fall. Sometimes whiplash may also be referred to as neck strain, neck sprain or hyperextension injury.
Neck & Arm Pain
The neck supports and assists in movement of the head. It is the most flexible part of the spine and consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, cervical segment of the spinal cord, spinal nerves, ligaments, tendons and muscles. Neck pain can be secondary to a problem affecting any of these structures.
The spine consists of several vertebrae stacked one on top of the other surrounding and protecting the spinal cord. In a condition called spondylolisthesis, one of the vertebrae slips forward in relation to the others. This can constrict the spinal canal causing pain and disability. In some cases, symptoms are absent and may develop later in life.
Back pain is an indication of stress fractures known as vertebral compression fractures. Vertebral compression fractures occur when the normal vertebral body of the spine is squeezed or compressed to a smaller height. The bone collapses when too much pressure is placed on the vertebrae, resulting in pain, limited mobility, height loss, and spinal deformity.
Spinal Disc Degeneration
Degenerative spinal conditions are group of disorders that causes loss of normal structure and function of the spine. These disorders may be caused due to aging, infection, tumours, muscle strains or arthritis. Degenerative joint disease is commonly known as arthritis that affects feet, fingers, hands, spine and weight-bearing joints. It is caused due to the inflammation of joints because the articular cartilage covering the bones may be damaged or worn out.
Pain in your legs may occur as a result of problems that affect the bone, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, nerves or skin of the leg, or sometimes due to problems in your lower spine.
Disc Prolapse or Herniated Disc
The vertebrae are cushioned by intervertebral discs which act as shock absorbers for the spine. The normal intervertebral disc is composed of a nucleus pulposus, at the centre, surrounded by a fibrous ring known as annulus fibrosus. The nucleus pulposus is a soft jelly like substance that is well hydrated and acts like a shock absorber.
Peripheral Nerve Disease
Sports-related Neck Injury
Nerve Pain of the Low Back