The pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain. It functions by producing hormones that control or regulate various functions of the body such as growth, metabolism, sexual development and reproduction.
Pituitary adenomas are noncancerous tumours that form in the pituitary gland, situated within the skull base. These tumours can cause hormonal imbalance in the body by either secreting excessive levels of a particular hormone or compressing the gland and preventing its normal function. They can also grow in size and compress important arteries and nerves at the base of the skull, causing visual disturbance.
Treatment may involve medications, surgery or radiotherapy as monotherapy or combination therapy. The surgery is essential when the tumour is pressing on the optic nerve and causing visual disturbance. Most of these tumours are removed through the nose and sinuses. However, in cases where the tumour is too large, it is removed through an incision in the head (transcranial approach)